Stanford University


Cross-Country Trends in Affective Polarization

Matthew Gentzkow
Levi Boxell
Jesse M. Shapiro

Review of Economics and Statistics
August 2021

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We measure trends in affective polarization in twelve OECD countries over the past four decades. According to our baseline estimates, the US experienced the largest increase in polarization over this period. Five countries experienced a smaller increase in polarization. Six countries experienced a decrease in polarization. We relate trends in polarization to trends in potential explanatory factors concerning the economy, technology, demography, and politics.

Stanford University